9 types of common disabilities

One can come across several types of disabilities in one’s life. The word disability includes a broad spectrum of conditions that result in physical, emotional, cognitive, and sensory impairments. Some of these disabilities may be congenital, while others may develop gradually due to an underlying health condition or an injury or accident. Each of these disabilities has its set of unique challenges. Here, let’s delve into the top 9 conditions that may cause disabilities.

Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue disorders
The musculoskeletal system comprises ligaments, cartilage, bones, and connective tissues. It connects all the bones in the body, facilitating movement and motion. Disabilities can occur due to musculoskeletal conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, spine disorders, scoliosis, ruptured discs, carpal tunnel syndrome, and degenerative disc disease.

Mood disorders
Disabilities can also occur due to mood disorders such as bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, cyclothymic disorder, seasonal affective disorder (SAD), persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), depression related to mental health issues, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Nervous system disorders
The nervous system comprises the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and nerves. Disabilities may develop due to several congenital or underlying health conditions related to the nervous system, such as infections like meningitis and polio, functional disorders like epilepsy and neuralgia, degenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease, and structural disorders like Bell’s palsy and brain or spinal cord injuries.

Intellectual disabilities
These include fragile X syndrome, developmental delays, Down syndrome, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS).

Circulatory system disorders
In some cases, disabilities may develop due to health conditions related to the circulatory system. These conditions include heart attack, atherosclerosis, arrhythmia and dysrhythmia, heart failure, high cholesterol or high blood pressure, stroke, and peripheral artery disease (PAD).

Psychotic disorders
These include conditions such as delusional disorder, schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder. They cause symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, catatonic behavior, and disorganized speech, all of which can be debilitating.

Physical injuries due to an accident or any other cause can also lead to disabilities.

Organic brain disorders
These are also known as chronic organic brain syndromes. These disorders can cause severe psychological and behavioral issues. Some examples of organic brain disorders include dementia, amnesia, Alzheimer’s disease, and delirium.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths such as tumors or lumps. These can be benign, pre-cancerous, or cancerous. In some cases, they can lead to severely disabling symptoms. Some common types of neoplasms include fibromas, adenomas, lipomas, and hemangiomas.


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